Chinese Chives. It is generally hardy to USDA plant hardiness zone 10. crispa was regarded as a species in its own right, distinct from P. frutescens, although it was well established that these types readily cross-pollinate. Chinese chives are typically more pungent than the ones commonly found in the market, which are European chives. Basil is not only a popular folk remedy for ailments like nausea and bug bites but also widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine and … A common foliar disease of basil is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea; it can cause infections post-harvest and is capable of killing the entire plant. How to Plant Basil Zones. COMMON NAMES: Holy Basil, Tusli, Tulasi, Madura-tala. Wick, R.L., Brazee, N.J., 2009. on Basil in Florida and the United States. In Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick soups. ( CC0) Ancient Superstitions Regarding Basil Although basil grows best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on a sun-facing windowsill. Plant Disease 93, 318–318. The leaves are used fresh or dried to flavor meats, fish, salads, and sauces; basil tea is a stimulant. crispa had been dubbed P. nankinensis, and this label was used throughout the 19th century in the West following the introduction of the species for ornamental planting. Basil is native to tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia.  In Portugal, dwarf bush basil is traditionally presented in a pot, together with a poem and a paper carnation, to a sweetheart, on the religious holidays of Saint John and Saint Anthony. × citriodorum), and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). The French sometimes call basil "l'herbe royale" ("royal herb"), while Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting. Space basil plants 12 to 16 inches apart.  Other constituents include: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and myrcene, among others. Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavor that is, in general, stronger than the Mediterranean basils, such as tulsi. Competition and Land-Use Efficiency of Popularly Recommended and Discouraged Crop Mixtures in Biointensive Agriculture Systems", "Blessing of the Waters known as Agiasmos conducted by a Greek Orthodox priest", Basil: Knowing and Growing from the New York Botanical Garden, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basil&oldid=992008081, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Articles containing Serbian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 00:17. Roberts, P.D., Raid, R.N., Harmon, P.F., Jordan, S.A., Palmateer, A.J., 2009. e.g. It also thrives over the summertime in the central and northern United States, but dies out when temperatures reach freezing point. Its leaves are richly green and ovate, but otherwise come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes depending on cultivar. The king of herbs basil herb is one of the ancient and popular herbal plants brimming with important health-benefiting phytonutrients. Since basil’s sweet, fresh flavor is fleeting, it’s wise to have a game plan for basil care after season. Basil herb nutrition facts. Picking the leaves off the plant helps promote growth, largely because the plant responds by converting pairs of leaflets next to the topmost leaves into new stems. It could be grown alongside other plants too like a peer, lettuce, oregano, etc. Once a basil plant goes to seed, the existing leaves begin to lessen in flavor, so don't be afraid to cut and use it, as soon as possible. However, in double-blind taste tests, basil did not significantly affect the taste of tomatoes when planted adjacent to them. When soaked in water, the seeds of several basil varieties become gelatinous, and are used in Asian drinks and desserts such as faluda, sharbat-e-rihan, or hột é. Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species, are grown in many regions of Asia. When to Plant Basil , The exact taxonomy of basil is uncertain due to the immense number of cultivars, its ready polymorphy, and frequent cross-pollination (resulting in new hybrids) with other members of the genus Ocimum and within the species. Basil is one of the easiest herbs to grow indoors, providing you can give it enough light. It is prominently featured in many cuisines throughout the world.  The aroma profile of basil includes 1,8-cineole and methyl eugenol. The many varied species of basil include: sweet basil, lemon basil, Italian or curly basil, holy basil, Thai basil and lettuce-leaf basil. The leaves are ovate and slightly toothed. Basil can also be propagated reliably from cuttings with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop. Basil is a leafy shrub whose annuity has a different scent. Once a stem produces flowers, foliage production stops on that stem, the stem becomes woody, and essential oil production declines. Species of plant, important culinary herb, Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Minuto, G., Gullino, M.L., 2004. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water.  The species name P. ocymoides or P. ocimoides has historically been used to denote P. frutescens var. Origins of Basil . Companion planting: Plant basil among other herbs and vegetables with similar lighting and watering needs, like tomatoes or parsley. Perilla varieties are cross-fertile and intra-specific hybridization occurs naturally. Other Common Names: Basil, common basil, garden basil, St. Joseph’s wort, basilicon, joy of the mountain, basilikum (German), basilic (French), lo-le (Chinese), basilika (Swedish), babui tulsi (Hindi), barjiru (Japanese). There are significant botanical differences in various types of basil plants. Softened chunks of Asian eggplant braised with garlic, chilies, soy sauce and finished with a flourish of fresh basil for a satisfying yet easy summer dish. Research studies of the essential oil showed antifungal and insect-repelling properties, including potential toxicity to mosquitos.  The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed it would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.. Basil plant is usually planted along with parsley and tomatoes as they complement each other many farmers are also of the opinion that basil plant brings a sweeter and better taste in tomatoes. They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. thyrsiflora), lemon basil (O. Basil belongs to the family of Lamiaceae, in the genus: Ocimum.Its scientific name is "Ocimum basilicum." It is used in Italian and Chinese dishes, but it only grows in the summer. First Report of Downy Mildew on Basil (. Leaf sizes range from 3 cm (1.2 in) to 11 cm (4.3 in) long, and between 1 cm (0.39 in) and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide. If you’re limited on space or only grow in containers, consider spicy globe basil, which tends to form a small, mounding habit. Basil grows a thick, central taproot. , The classification of Perilla is confused, partly because botanists struggled with distinguishing the two distinct cultigens as different species or variations. Basil is sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions. Ocimum sanctum, or holy basil, is an aromatic plant that is native to the tropics of Asia and Africa, and is widespread as a cultivated plant and weed. Seedlings may be killed by Pythium damping off. First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by a Peronospora Species on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Massachusetts. Thai basil, which can be grown from seed or cuttings, requires fertile, well-draining soil with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5 and 6 … Ideal for a lettuce wrap because the leaves are large, around 3-5 inches in size. frutescens. The genus name Perilla is also a frequently employed common name ("perilla"), applicable to all varieties. is applied to P. frutescens var.  The genus name Perilla is also a frequently employed common name ("perilla"), applicable to all varieties.  In India, they place it in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God. Chemical studies classify the genus into different chemotypes, depending on the essential oils they contain. Basil leaves are large, somewhat delicate, and have a smooth texture marked with a series of veins; they are the prime part of the plant used in cooking. Alternatively, basil does exceptionally well under lights also, and with a regular compact fluorescent bulb, you can grow enough basil to keep your kitchen stocked all year round. You can eat the huge blossoms, but the leaves also have a delicious, spicy flavor. Some varieties are consi… 2. It should be kept away from extremely cold drafts, and grows best in strong sunlight, therefore a greenhouse or row cover is ideal if available. The flowers are edible, too, so don't despair if a few plants get ahead of you. This plant plays a therapeutic role in Tamil and Ayurvedic medicines, which are predominantly practiced in Southeast Asia. Basil is popularly recommended as a companion plant to the tomato. Store the dried herb in a glass jar with an airtight lid. Basil (Ocimum basilicus) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and is easily recognized by the shape of its lanceolate leaves that vary from pale green to intense green to violet or purple of some varieties. occurs in Heibonsha 1964 Encyclopedia, though the genus name is misspelt, 10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0245:APCATW]2.0.CO;2, "Studies on Perilla Relating to Its Essential Oil and Taxonomy", "The Garden's Tiny Culinary Transformations", "The Nutritional Treasure of Leafy Vegetables-Perilla frutescens", Tropentag 2016 Wien: International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development, "Perilla: Botany, Uses and Genetic Resources", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perilla&oldid=991522281, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 14:25. basil translate: 羅勒（烹飪中用作調味的香草），九層塔. If the plant sets flowers, it is on its way to going to seed and will not grow bushy and fill out with a lot of tasty leaves. crispa, and the synonym P. ocymoides L. was applied to P. The basil plant, ocimum basilicus. Translation for 'basil' in the free English-Chinese dictionary and many other Chinese translations.